Saturday, April 09, 2016

Top 10 Kanban Practices

If you are a team that's been practicing Kanban for a few months, here are a few practices that will make your team more productive.

  1. Stop starting, Start Finishing. Help your team get a story/feature done, rather than add a new one.
  2. Follow WIP limits. Seeing “RED” on your board should cause discomfort and move the team to fixing it
  3. Work from right to left. If you have the skills, pick the story on the right of  the board and help move it towards DONE. Remember, organizations make money when work is done
  4. If a card is spending more time in a column than it should, offer to help . Do not wait for a manager / team lead to bring this up. Also, do not wait for a standup to bring this up. Define a policy in your team on what should happen if a card is spending more time in a column.
  5. If a task/process is not adding value, eliminate it. Do not wait for the retrospective to bring it up.
  6. Update the board to reflect the current state of work at any time (position on the board and who’s working on it). Do not wait for the standup to move a card. The board is a communication tool and it needs to communicate the true status at all times
  7. The standup is not a “status report” - the board already conveys the status. Discuss roadblocks / improvement ideas rather than a routine discussion of cards on the board
  8. Have team members take turns running the standup. This will cause them to pay attention to what's going on in the team.
  9. Gradually, look to reducing the WIP limit, thus promoting more collaboration.
  10. Celebrate what got done yesterday.

Monday, August 10, 2015

Why your company may need a Hackathon

A Hackathon is a creative problem solving / focused innovation exercise where people in your company will take a fixed time-out from regular work to solve problems or suggest new ideas. Participants will form small groups and code solutions (prototypes). At the end of the Hackathon teams will demonstrate  the solution they've "hacked" together.

Why does your company need a Hackathon?

The hackathon is a forum to unlock the creative potential in your team members.

If you are a knowledge based company - and who isn't nowadays - the ability to innovate is key to your future. The day to day tasks  probably keeps your teams focused on execution but don’t offer much opportunity to tap into their creativity. The idea is to give your teams the freedom to step outside the constraints for their day-to-day and see what they can come up with when the ball is in their court. They'll be working on projects they're excited about, not building something because that's what they've been told to do.

As many companies have discovered, it's pretty amazing what can done in a Hackathon. Often these implementations / ideas turn up to be new business opportunities. However, events like these are unpredictable.  There are no guarantees, with failures as likely as success. 

A hackathon is not a panacea but instead should be part of an overall strategy to spur innovation. 

The investment is small and the reward is potentially huge.

Other Benefits:
  • It's a great team building exercise that also results in tangible outcomes for the company in terms of solutions and new business opportunities.
  • It sends a clear message that you value innovation
  • Creates positive energy and helps morale. It’s also a learning experience
  • Unlocks the creative potential in our team members
  • Helps retain talent. And even helps attract talent (with so many companies doing Hackathons not doing it makes us "uncool")

How it works

  1. Employees suggest and brainstorm some ideas
  2. Employees sign up for the short listed ideas and form small teams
  3. Each group is given a fixed time to come up with working code
  4. At the end of the Hackathon, every group demos their work to all participants as well as management

Wednesday, April 24, 2013

The Feed Forward Loop - A learning process

The Feed Forward loop is a process to become a “Learning Organization”. Successful teams and eventually successful businesses are those that learn the most in the least time.

I call it the “Feed Forward Loop” because it’s purpose is to fuel the next cycle. It’s a forward looking cycle that aims to deliver scientific learning in every loop. Every initiative that an agile team starts must be targeted towards increasing learning in the shortest possible time. For example, you should aim to learn more about the customer, the business, the market, etc. As you know, learning is best accomplished by doing. The Feed Forward Loop facilitates that.

There are four steps in the loop:

1. Hypothesize
State your assumption for the initiative that you are about to launch. What do you intend to achieve? What are your success/fail criteria?

2. Test
Devise a method to test the initiative. 

3. Measure
Measure the outcome of your test. Did it pass or fail? Did it validate your hypothesis?

4. Learn
This is the key to the initiative. Whether the initiative succeeds or fails, there’s always lessons to be learned. Use this learning to kick off the next cycle.

Monday, October 29, 2012

Kanban: Assets and Liabilities

The next time you look at a Kanban board, pretend to be an accountant. Look through the eyes of an accountant. You'll probably see two columns like most accountants do - Assets and Liabilities.

Don't see them? 

Work that is "Done" or "Released" is an Asset. Companies make money when work is done. You'll probably find this on the right side of the board.

Now look to the left. Those are your liabilities. All this work that's "In-Progress" - they are liabilities. You can be proud of them, but they are not making you money. In fact, it's quite the opposite - they are burning money.

So what do you do with this knowledge?

Start converting your liabilities into assets. Don't add new work (i.e. increase liabilities), instead create more assets (i.e. complete work). Work from the right side of the board.

Stop starting, Start Finishing.

Sunday, February 26, 2012

The Daily Kanban Stand-up

Many teams transition to Kanban from other agile processes. And often,  they conduct the daily stand up just like they used to in their previous process. Since Kanban is an evolutionary method, in the beginning that's fine. However, very soon you'll find that changes are necessary.

Teams new to Kanban use the stand up like a status meeting - often taking turns to update the team on the status of  their "tickets".  Or, they keep it very Scrum like, typically answering the following questions, with some variation,  in a round robin format:

  1.  What did I accomplish yesterday?
  2.  What can I commit to doing today?
  3.  What are the impediments in the way?

While that may have been appropriate for your past agile process, of the three questions, only the last one is relevant in a Kanban stand up.

(1) is unnecessary because the cards on the board tell the story. The WIP (Work in Progress) is visual.

(2) is irrelevant because work will take whatever time it will take to get done. Committing to accomplishing the work will not necessarily make it faster. Often, that leads to heroic effort. In addition, the focus on completing the work that has been "committed" to can actually come in the way of continuous improvement.

So,  what should we discuss in the stand up? I'd suggest:

  1. Impediments: What's impeding us?
  2. Flow: What's the flow like?
  3. Kaizen - or "Continuous Improvement": What can we improve?

Let's take a deeper dive into these questions.

What's impeding us?
Impediments are in the way of getting work done. Impeded work items should be marked visually on the board - usually with a pink sticky on top of it. Team leads or managers should focus on getting these impediments removed as quickly as possible.

Note that you don't have to talk about which item is impeded - that's obvious from the board. The conversation should be around resolution.

What's the flow like?
Kanban looks at software engineering as a flow problem.  The board will show where the bottlenecks are and therefore what's preventing the team from accomplishing more. The conversation should be around smoothening the flow and what actions the team can take to relieve the bottlenecks.

What can we improve?
Kanban is an evolutionary method. It's success largely relies on a mindset that's looking to constantly improve. These do not have to be big changes and can be a series of small improvements. Having a brief conversation on this topic everyday will make it clear that it is everyone's responsibility to make the process better.  When suggestions for improvement come from the team (rather than from managers), there is greater ownership and more likelihood of success.

These are the core questions. Here are some additional practices for a successful standup:

Ensure the board is up to date before the stand up
Many teams also use electronic tools along with a board. It is important to keep the two synchronized. Before kicking off the stand up, ask the team if the board is synchronized.

Celebrate the small victories
The done column on  the board should ideally have two parts. Work done for the week (or an appropriate time period) and work done since the last stand up. You can now see what got done since yesterday. Call attention to what got done. Recognize the effort, if only for a moment. Bring your hands together. Yes - applaud and cheer.

Celebrate small victories and energize the team.  And move on.

Change facilitators
Encourage different team members to take on this responsibility. When you facilitate, you'll get a different perspective of the process. You'll also take more ownership and funnily enough, suggest more improvements.

End the stand up on a high note
 If you have a team song, team dance, a war cry - do it. It'll always elicit a laugh and keep good cheer.

 I'd encourage you to try these practices and improve on them. You should bring in your variations to the stand up around the core practices.

Remember - the goal is to continuously improve.

Monday, November 21, 2011

Kanban Introduction

Kanban Blog

Saturday, September 17, 2011

WIP limits - The magic sauce in Kanban

A software development process can be viewed as a queuing system. Little’s law states:

Lead Time = Work In Progress / Throughput

Lead time is the time that a work item (represented by a card on a Kanban board)  spends in a system in various work states. We want to reduce that, so we can get more work done i.e. increase throughput. As you can tell from the equation, reducing WIP (work in progress) is one way of achieving that. 

Less is more

We've all heard that and have certainly experienced that. That's an earthy way of stating Little's law. We can get more done, when we are focused and working on fewer things.


We are not wired to work on multiple tasks at the same time. When we say we are multitasking, we are really switching our attention from one task to the other i.e switching contexts. Context switching is a waste. Studies have shown that with every additional task taken up there’s a 20% loss. If we are working on three different tasks, we’ve lost almost half the time in just context switching.

Grandma was right - less is more. But don't tell grandma that. Not unless you want her to limit you to just a couple of  freshly baked cookies instead of the usual half dozen. 

Ok, we should limit WIP.  But how do we determine the WIP limit?

We experiment.

If we set the limit too high, we will continue working on multiple tasks. If we set the limit too low, we may cause bottlenecks and affect the flow of work in the system.We want the WIP limit to be optimal so we can have a smooth flow.

But it’s not a science. The board will tell you. 

There are advantages to starting with a lower WIP limit

Yes, they’ll cause starvation and pain. But lower limits will expose potential problems in the system. The industry uses the analogy of the WIP limit with lowering the waterline. Lowering the waterline exposes the rocks (i.e. bottlenecks and constraints).  When the problems are exposed, the team can work to remove the bottlenecks and constraints until the work flows smoothly again. 

And so on and so forth.

It creates slack

When everybody is working  all the time, there's not much time to introspect, retrospect, experiment, innovate or even  have lunch. As a rule of thumb, lead times go up when utilization crosses around eighty percent.  High utilization is not good. We've probably experienced this when the highways begin to fill up with cars or when the CPU on the computer gets toward its capacity.

How do we create slack?

We could hire additional members on the team. Imagine going to the folks that handle the purse strings and telling them that we want ten developers in the team but we only want to keep eight developers working because we've heard that utilization  at above eighty percent is not good. Good luck with that :)

Or - we could apply WIP limits

If we have a team of ten and we've put an overall WIP limit of 8, and assuming only one person works on an item at a time, we've taken away work from a couple of developers. In other words, we've intentionally created slack (or  excess capacity). And slack is good because it will allow these two "idle" developers to do a few things such as pair up with other developers or help resolve issues at bottlenecks.

And funnily enough, this will help get more work done.

It's an enabler for a "Pull"system

A pull system is one where the downstream process pulls in work only when it's ready to process it. This will result in producing only what's needed, transferring work to a work station when needed and reduce inventories i.e. it will help result in a lean outcome.

When we have WIP limits, we cannot take on work unless  we have a "slot" available on the work station. We are consciously defining our capacity to take on work. Imagine if we did not have limits. Work would be "pushed" to us by the upstream process - whether we were ready or not. And  most likely, it would just wait  to be acted on. That's a waste.

WIP limits make Kanban a "Pull" system.

It's an enabler for Kaizen

It's not that we don't want to improve, but it's usually that we don't know where to start. Or what our bottlenecks/problems are. Lower work limits are a great enabler for continuous improvement (kaizen). When you run into the bottleneck, resist the temptation to immediately raise the WIP limit. Get a conversation started in the team and look to resolve the bottleneck. 

Pound the rocks to submission. And if you still have a bottleneck, raise the limit to enable flow.

Trust the board. The board does not lie.